The dative case is most easily pictured as a case of giving, selling, donating (all in all,
giving something to someone). Whether the item someone or something is giving is
tangible or not, it does not matter. Also, dative is used in expressing goal or intention.
When something or someone is going towards something, the dative case will be used
(sometimes the accusative, depending on the preposition before the noun).
- Ivan je dao svoju bilježnicu svojoj prijateljici Ivani. (Ivan gave his
notebook to his friend Ivana.)
- Ivan će uskoro prodati svoj auto kupcu koji najviše ponudi. (Ivan will
soon sell his car to the buyer who offers the most.)
- Ivan ide k svojoj kući. (Ivan is going towards his house.)
- Ivan je išao prema dućanu. (Ivan was going towards the shop.)
The dative case was used in the above sentences because:
In the first and second because the subject of the sentence (Ivan) gave (and in
the second sentence, will give) something away to someone/something.
In the third and fourth sentence Because Ivan is going (was going in the latter
sentence) towards something.
Prepositions that usually preceed a noun in the dative state: k, usprkos, unatoč,
nadomak, nadohvat, usuprot, protiv, naprama, prema.
A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.
Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions.
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich. Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including conlangs such as Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Klingon, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
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