In Croatian, nouns change form depending on the
composition of the sentence. This is called declension. Declension has been proved the
most difficult to master for people who are learning Croatian. It is very complicated and
time consuming to explain it and because of that we will use simpler techniques in
this course. However, many languages have noun and pronoun declension including
English. In English, though, only pronoun declension remained through the course of years.
Let us start by explaining all of the seven Croatian grammatical cases. The technique that
is most frequently used in determining grammatical cases (the same technique is used in
Croatian schools when taught to children) is by asking yourself a question when you are trying to figure out which case a noun should be in. In Croatian, grammatical cases are
(plural) and padež
In this example you will be shown how to determine a noun's grammatical
case by using the table below.
Krešimir ide u školu. (Krešimir is going to school.)
The question you will ask yourself here is: “Where is Krešimir going?”. And the
answer is that he's going to school. By looking at the table below you will see
that the question 'where' is used for the Locative case.
The question you should ask
Tko? Što? (Who or what?)
Jabuka je fina. (The
apple is delicious.)
Koga? Čega? Čiji? (Who or
what is missing? Who's?
Ovo radim zbog jabuke. (I'm doing this because of the apple.)
Komu? Čemu? (Whom or
what am I going toward?)
Idem prema jabuci. (I
am going toward the
Koga? Što? (Whom or
Ne vidim jabuku. (I don't
see the apple.)
Oj! Ej! (Oi! Hey!)
Oj, jabuko! (Oi,
Gdje? U komu? U čemu?
(Where? In what? In who?)
Živim u jabuci. (I live in
S kime? S čime? (With
whom or with what?)
Trčim s jabukom. (I am
running with the apple.)
|exercise - key
Determine the grammatical case of the underlined nouns in the following
- Zvonimir je u svojoj sobi. (Zvonimir is in his room.)
- Domagoj ide kući biciklom. (Domagoj is going home by bike.)
- Hrvatska je pobijedila na nogometnom natjecanju. (Croatia won the football
A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.
Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions.
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich. Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including conlangs such as Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Klingon, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
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