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grammatical tenses - glagolska vremena
In Croatian, there are seven grammatical tenses. They can be divided in two ways. By the time they take place in and by their complexity. Simple tenses consist of only 1 word (simple tenses are aorist, imperfect, present) while complex tenses consist of 2 or even 3 words (complex tenses are pluperfect, perfect, first future, second future) because they also consist of auxiliary verbs. Also, some grammatical tenses cannot be formed with both grammatical aspects, they work with only 1.

Tense Description Example
Pluskvamperfekt (Pluperfect) An action that has happened before another action (same as English past perfect). Mladen je bio ručao. (Mladen had had lunch.)
Imperfekt (Imperfect) Past tense that is formed only by imperfective verbs. An unfinished past tense. Mladen trčaše. (Mladen was running.)
Aorist Past tense (not used much nowadays). It is the same as Perfekt. Can be formed only with verbs in perfective states. Mladen odtrčaše. (Mladen was running but he finished sometime in the past.)
Perfekt (Perfect) Main past tense. Can be formed by both imperfective and perfective verbs. Mladen je trčao. (Mladen was running).
Prezent (Present) Present tense. Mladen ruča. (Mladen is having lunch.)
Futur prvi (First future) Future tense. Mladen će ručati. (Mladen will have lunch.)
Futur drugi (Second future) Before-future tense. Used in expresing a future action that will happen before another future action. Ako bude kiša uskoro pala, suša će prestati. (If rain soon falls, the drought will end.)

exercise - key

Determine the tenses of the underlined verbs:

  1. Jučer sam bio na poslu. (I was at work yesterday.)
  2. Rekla je da ga bude nazvala prije nego što će otići kući. (She said she would call him before she goes home.)
  3. Večeram. (I am having dinner.)
  4. Rekoh mu. (I told him.)
  5. Jučer cijeli dan pecijah peciva. (I was baking rolls the whole day yesterday.)
  6. Bio sam kupio novi auto ali mislim da nisam trebao. (I had bought a new car but I think I shouldn't have bought it.)


A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages. Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions. There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich. Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including conlangs such as Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Klingon, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages. Translate languages for free. Linguistics experts. English, sprache, swedish, german, italian, french, croatia, language, hrvatski, hrvatska, croatian, jezik, learn, free, phrasebook, phrases, recordings, translations, tourist, tourism, holidays, vacations, trips, istria, istra, slavonija, slavonia, dalmatia, dalmacija, zagreb, no, charge, online.
did you know?
The word for "what" in Kajkavian dialect is "Kaj", in Chakavian "Ča" and in Shtokavian "Što".

random phrases
Mačji kašalj!

Piece of cake! (lit. cat's cough)
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