The genitive case marks a characteristic (trait), substance, belonging, property, origin.
- Luka je Slavin sin. (Luka is Slava's son.)
- Zgrada je sagrađena od cigle. (The building was built out of brick.)
- Jadranka je primjetila da Martina nema. (Jadranka noticed that Martin wasn't there.)
- Miroslav je iz Ukrajine. (Miroslav is from the Ukraine.)
The genitive case was used in the above sentences because:
- Luka is Slava's son, thus he “belongs” to her.
- The sentence says the building was built out of brick, thus showing it's
- Genitive is used because Martin wasn't at the same place as Jadranka.
Genitive is used when expressing that something/someone isn't
somewhere. It can be followed by a noun in the instrumental case telling
where was it that someone/something wasn't present. Example: Martina
nije bilo u gradu. (Martin wasn't in the city.) Note that this sentence could
also be written using the nominative case -> Martin nije bio u gradu.
(Meaning is the same.) However, these things delve deeper into Croatian
grammar (when to use nominative, when genitive) and we won't go into
them in this course.
- The sentence shows that Miroslav is from the Ukraine, revealing his origin.
Prepositions that usually preceed a noun in the genitive state: od, do, iz, s(a),
ispred, iza, izvan, van, unutar, iznad, ispod, poviše, niže, prije, uoči, poslije, nakon,
za, tijekom, tokom, podno, povrh, navrh,
nakraj, onkraj, krajem, potkraj, sred (nasred, posred, usred), oko, okolo, blizu, kod, kraj,
pokraj, pored, nadomak, nadohvat, i, u, mimo, duž, uzduž, širom, diljem, preko, bez, osim,
umjesto, uime, putem, (s) pomoću, posredstvom, između, (na)spram, put, protiv,
nasuprot, usprkos, unatoč, zbog, uslijed, radi, glede, prigodom, prilikom,
A language is a method of communication. Human spoken and written languages can be described as a system of symbols (sometimes known as lexemes) and the grammars (rules) by which the symbols are manipulated. The word "language" is also used to refer to common properties of languages.
Language learning is normal in human childhood. Most human languages use patterns of sound or gesture for symbols which enable communication with others. There are thousands of human languages, and these seem to share certain properties, even though every shared property has exceptions.
There is no defined line between a language and a dialect, but it is often said that a language is a dialect with an army and a navy, a statement credited to Max Weinreich. Humans and computer programs have also constructed other languages, including conlangs such as Esperanto, Ido, Interlingua, Klingon, programming languages, and various mathematical formalisms. These languages are not necessarily restricted to the properties shared by human languages.
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